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5 days ago

In **real estate** investment analysis, cap rate (short for capitalization rate) equals the ratio of net operating income to the property value. Cap rates from comparable properties are used to discount the net operating income of a property to arrive at its intrinsic value.

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8 days ago

Funds from operations (FFO) is a measure of cash flows used in **real estate** investment trusts (REIT) valuation. It equals net income plus depreciation expense plus deferred tax expense plus any loss on assets minus any gain on assets. AFFO stands for adjusted funds from operations and it equals FFO minus revenue accruals minus capital expenses.

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7 days ago

Held for sale assets are long -lived assets for which a company has a concrete plan to dispose of the asset by sale. They are carried on balance sheet at the lower of carrying value or fair value and no depreciation is charged on them.

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4 days ago

A **real estate** investment can be treated as a perpetuity of rentals. Formula. Let’s follow the endowment example above. Let the endowment value be PV, the annual scholarship withdrawals be PMT and i being the periodic interest rate. If we want the endowment to finance scholarships each year perpetually, the interest earned on PV in one year

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4 days ago

Example: Axe Ltd. purchased a building worth $200,000 on January 1, 2008. It records the building using the following journal entry. Equipment. 200,000. Cash. 200,000. The building has a useful life of 20 years and the company uses straight-line depreciation. Yearly depreciation is hence $200,000/20 or $10,000.

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1 days ago

Degree of total leverage is the ratio of percentage change in earnings per share to percentage change in sales revenue. It is also called degree of combined leverage, a measure which incorporates the effect of both operating leverage and financial leverage.

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9 days ago

Debt ratio (i.e. debt to assets (D/A) ratio) can be calculated directly from debt-to-equity (D/E) ratio or equity multiplier. It equals (a) debt to equity ratio divided by (1 plus debt to equity ratio) or (b) (equity multiplier minus 1) divided by equity multiplier.

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2 days ago

Cost of capital is the opportunity cost of funds available to a company for investment in different projects. The most common measure of cost of capital is the weighted average cost of capital, which is a composite measure of marginal return required on all components of the company’s capital, namely debt, preferred stock and common stock.. Most companies are for-profit entities which must

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Gearing ratio measures a company’s financial leverage, the level of interest-bearing liabilities in its capital structure. It is most commonly calculated by dividing total debt by shareholders equity. Alternatively, it is also calculated by dividing total …

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2 days ago

Stonewall, Inc. is company engaged in **real estate** management. In December 2016, the company’s board of directors has received a takeover offer. In discussing the offer, they have requested a presentation by the company’s CFO. The company’s net cash …

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7 days ago

Discounted cash flow (DCF) is a method used to determine intrinsic value of stocks, bonds, **real estate** or any other investments by discounting their future expected net cash flows to time 0 using a discount rate appropriate for the risk inherent in those cash flows.

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7 days ago

Transaction exposure is a type of foreign exchange risk that results from the difference in the final settlement value of foreign-currency denominated assets and liabilities due to changes in exchange rate between the date those assets or liabilities arose and their settlement date. It can be hedged using futures contracts, money market hedge and options.

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1 days ago

In **real estate** investment analysis, net operating income (NOI) is an unlevered measure of a property’s income potential. It equals the property revenue minus all operating expenses. NOI is used in direct capitalization method and discounted cash flow method to arrive at a property’s intrinsic value.

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5 days ago

The following formula is used to calculate cost of new equity: Cost of New Equity =. D 1. + g. P 0 × (1 − F) Where, D1 is dividend in next period. P0 is the issue price of a share of stock. F is the ratio of flotation cost to the issue price.

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7 days ago

Where risk premium is the excess of risk-adjusted discount rate over the risk free rate.. Example. You are the senior financial analyst at Schon **Real Estate** which invested heavily in Dubai **real estate** in 20X5. Unfortunately, the projects did not turn out as profitable as they were expected.

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6 days ago

Net Working Capital = Current Assets − Current Liabilities = $49,433M − $43,625M = $5,808 million. Net Operating Working Capital = Operating Current Assets − Operating Current Liabilities = $30,678M − $34,444M = -$3,766 million. Low working capital and low net operating working capital together with unfavorable current ratio, quick ratio, days sales in receivable and days sales in

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4 days ago

Inflation premium is the component of a required return that represents compensation for inflation risk. It is the chunk of interest rate which investors demand in addition to **real** risk-free rate due to risk of decrease in purchasing power of money. It can be estimated as the difference between the yield on Treasury inflation-protected securities (TIPS) and Treasury bonds of the same maturity.

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5 days ago

Market value added represents the wealth generated by a company for its shareholders since inception. It equals the amount by which the market value of the company's stock exceeds the total capital invested in a company (including capital retained in the form of undistributed earnings).

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3 days ago

In a business combination, bargain purchase occurs when the fair value of net assets of the acquiree exceeds the purchase consideration paid by the acquirer plus fair value of any noncontrolling interest.The difference is recognized as a gain by the acquirer. It is also called negative goodwill. When one company acquires another, it pays the company or its shareholders an amount …

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9 days ago

Effective annual yield is a measure of annual return on investment that takes the compounding of interest into account. It is calculated by compounding and annualizing the holding period return.. The holding period return itself is not an annual rate so two investments can’t be compared directly using the holding period return.

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4 days ago

FV is an Excel function that calculates the future value of (a) a finite stream of equidistant equal periodic cash flows or (b) a single cash flow at time 0. All the periodic cash flows must be of the same amount, there must be equal time period between them and the whole cash flow stream must be subject to a constant interest rate.

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2 days ago

Total factor productivity (TFP) is a measure of productivity calculated by dividing economy-wide total production by the weighted average of inputs i.e. labor and capital. It represents growth in **real** output which is in excess of the growth in inputs such as labor and capital. Productivity is a measure of the relationship between outputs (total product) and inputs i.e. factors of production

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8 days ago

Where FCFF 0 and FCFE 0 represent the free cash flow to firm and free cash flow to equity both at time 0, WACC is the weighted average cost of capital, k e is the cost of equity, g is the growth rate and MVD is the market value of debt.. Funds from Operations (FFO) Funds from operations (FFO) is a measure similar to cash flows from operations (CFO) which is used in valuation of **real estate**

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6 days ago

Loan to value ratio is the ratio of the principal balance of the loan to the market value of the asset used to secure the loan. It is an important factor used by lenders in deciding whether to approve a loan or not. Let’s say you have spotted a property that’s worth $1 million and you want to buy it with $250,000 of your own savings and take out a 5% fixed-rate mortgage for the rest i.e

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1 days ago

Home Finance **Real Estate** Adjustable Rate Mortgage Adjustable Rate Mortgage An adjustable rate mortgage (ARM) is a mortgages in which the interest rate is typically fixed for a few initial years but varies based on certain index such as the LIBOR, federal funds rate, etc. during the rest of …

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7 days ago

Present value factor (PVF) (also called present value interest factor (PVIF)) is the equivalent value today of $1 in future or a series of $1 in future.A table of present value factors can be used to work out the present value of a single sum or annuity. There are multiple ways to find present value of a single value or an annuity: using the present value formula, using Microsoft Excel PV

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5 days ago

Terminal cash flow is the net cash flow that occurs at the end of a project and represents the after-tax proceeds from disposal of the project assets and recoupment of working capital.. Terminal cash flow has two main components: Proceeds from disposal of project equipment, and; cash flows associated with reversion of working capital to the level that prevailed before the start of the project.

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2 days ago

Where fund assets represent the total market value of the fund assets including investments (stocks, bonds, **real estate**, etc.), receivables, accrued income and cash and cash equivalents, fund liabilities include any obligation on short positions, operating and general and admin expenses, management fee, etc. on accrual basis.. Example. Topline Asset Management started its …

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Modigliani and Miller theories of capital structure (also called MM or M&M theories) say that (a) when there are no taxes, (i) a company’s value is not affected by its capital structure and (ii) its cost of equity increases linearly as a function of its debt to equity ratio but when (b) there are taxes, (i) the value of a levered company is always higher than an unlevered company and (ii

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9 days ago

PVGO stands for present value of growth opportunities and it represents the component of a company’s stock price that corresponds to the investors’ expectations of growth in earnings. PVGO can be calculated as the difference between the value of a company minus the present value of its earnings assuming zero growth. It is also called value of growth.

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5 days ago

There is no periodic cash flow. In the above example, RRI equals 5% as illustrated below. The same value can be obtained using the formula above: RRI 115,752 100,000 1 3 1. The rate obtained above is for the same time unit in which we enter NPER. Where the period length is a year, RRI function can be used to calculate the compound annual growth

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7 days ago

A credit default swap (CDS) is a contract that gives the buyer of the contract a right to receive compensation from the seller of the contract in the event of default of a third party. The buyer of the contract is typically a bondholder who is looking to transfer his credit exposure to another party. The seller is typically a bank which earns from the premiums it receives from the buyer.

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2 days ago

Incremental internal rate of return (IRR) is the discount rate at which the present value of periodic differential cash flows of two projects equals the difference between the initial investments needed for each project. One of the drawbacks of the traditional internal rate of return approach of capital budgeting is that it ignores the size of

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1 days ago

Terminal value is the value of a security or a project at some future date beyond which more precise cash flows projection is possible. It is also called horizon value or continuing value. It is calculated based on a price multiple of using single-stage discount model.

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2 days ago

An annuity is a series of equal cash flows that occur after equal interval of time. If we know the interest rate and number of time periods, we can work out the annuity cash flow that corresponds to a specific present value and/or future value.. Let us assume you want to enroll in an 8-semester MBA program.

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6 days ago

Excel works out the number of years between two cash flows based on a 365-days year. XNPV function assumes the first cash flow to occur at t=0 so it doesn’t discount the first cash flow. Unlike NPV function, we must include the initial investment under the values argument in the XNPV function and hence not subtract it manually.

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3 days ago

Home Finance **Real Estate** Mortgage-backed Securities Mortgage-backed Securities Mortgage-backed securities (MBS) are bonds (specifically asset-backed securities ) backed by a pool of residential or commercial mortgages and issued by a special purpose entity (SPE) specifically created to obtain ownership of and receive cash flows from the mortgages.

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2 days ago

An American option is a financial contract that gives its holder a choice to purchase or sell a financial asset at a specified exercise price at any time before the specified expiry date.. American option entitles its holder to discretion not only in exercising his option, but also in the timing of such exercise. European option on the other hand, does not allow flexibility in timing of exercise.

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Installment method is a conservative method of revenue recognition. It is only applied in situations, for example in **real estate**, when the risks and rewards are not completely transferred at the time of sale. It differs from cost recovery method because in installment method there is less doubt about collectability of the installments.

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**Total:** 39 New Post

**Real estate is generally a great investment option**. It can generate ongoing passive income and can be a good long-term investment if the value increases over time.

Real estate is often a referral-based business. Those who are involved in the business longer typically are the most successful. Those with 16 years or more experience earned the highest real estate income: **approximately $78,850** on average.

**Dallas** tops the list of real-estate markets over the period studied, exhibiting strong price appreciation, while remaining a market in which investors saw strong rents relative to property values.

**Manhattan** real estate is the most expensive in the US per square foot with some properties topping $10,000: Study. Move over San Francisco — the Big Apple tops Silicon Valley as most expensive place to live in the United States, a new study shows.